Joy is a purely functional language,
and yet it is often useful to think in imperative mode
when writing Joy programs.
This rsults from the fact that Joy is based on the composition
of functions, and not on the application of functions.
This was first made explicit by Billy Tanksley (2000) in his
preamble to the mailing group concatenative:
This note illustrates imperative thinking for five Joy programs. In the literature these are often written recursively. But they either are tail recursive or can be rewritten in a tail recursive form, possibly using accumulators. Consequently these programs can also be written in an imperative style without recursion but using loops. In this note the imperative version is used as the starting point which is then translated into purely functional Joy.
The first two programs are for computing the factorial and the Fibonacci functions. Both use the times combinator of Joy. The third and fourth program are for computing the greatest common divisor function gcd and the predicate for determining whether a number is prime. Both use the while combinator of Joy. The last program is a combinator for Newton's method of finding arguments for which a given function returns a zero value. The method works by starting with a guessed argument and improving it until it has the required magnitude. This Joy program also uses the while combinator. The method can also be used to compute inverses of functions, for example for finding cube-roots when given a cubing function.
All five programs were developed using corresponding Scheme programs in Abelson and Sussman (19??) as a guide.
factorial(N) = VAR P := 1 VAR I FOR I := 1 TO N DO P := P * I RETURN PThe upper limit N ensures that the body of the loop will be executed exactly N times. In addition, the FOR-loop will increment the variable I exactly as required. But we could do the incrementing explicitly:
factorial(N) = VAR P := 1 VAR I := 1 N TIMES DO P := P * I I := I + 1 RETURN PTo translate this into Joy, here is a first draft. The TIMES-loop will be executed by the times combinator of Joy. The body of the loop will need to be expressed in Joy, but we do that later. Before the loop there will need to be some initialisation corresponding to the imperative program. And after the loop there will need to be some finalisation corresponding to the RETURN.
factorial == "initialise" [ "body of loop" ] times "finalise"A call to the factorial function will be of the form
N factorialwhere the N will have to be available for the times combinator. That means that the simulation initialisation of the two variables P and I will have to be below the N. In the imperative program both were initialised to 1. So below the parameter N there will need to be two further stack elements, both 1, that are pushed under the control of the dip combinator. Hence the initialisation is:
[ 1 1 ] dipThe body of the Joy loop has to do what the body of the imperative loop does:
P := P * I I := I + 1The counterpart of P has to be multiplied by the counterpart of I, but there has to be another copy of I available to be incremented by 1. So the body of the Joy loop has to start with a dup operator to make that copy. Then thecounterpart of P has to be multiplied by the original counterpart of I, and this has to occur below the new copy of the counterpart of I. That is easily done by the combination [*] dip. Finally, corresponding to the incrementing of I, the successor of the top element is taken. Hence the body of the Joy loop is
dup [*] dip succThe loop is executed N times, and when that is done the imperative program returns P, whose counterpart is the second element from the top of the stack. So the finalisation of the Joy program is
popPutting the three pieces together, we have the definition
factorial == [1 1] dip [ dup [*] dip succ ] times popThis completes the Joy program. In the Joy library numlib.joy it is just a one-liner:
fact == [1 1] dip [dup [*] dip succ] times pop;
The Fibonacci function is also often given a recursive definition, generally just to test efficiency of an implementation because a non-recursive definition would be more efficient. The usual recursive definition is inefficient because the same values have to be computed many times over. The following is a design of a non-recursive version.
The Fibonacci function for the first two natural numbers
0 and 1 as arguments has the values 0 and 1,
and for any larger numbers as arguments
it values is just the sum of its values for the two
The following gives the arguments and the values:
arguments 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... values 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 ...Note that to compute the later values only the values for the two preceding numbers are needed. This helps in the following consideration, where the values are now arranged in a staircase:
arguments values 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 3 5 5 5 8 6 8 13Each step of the staircase consists of two numbers, the left and the right, hereafter called L and R. Three observations can be made: (1) In the first, topmost step L and R are respectively the Fibonacchi values for 0 and 1. (2) The two numbers L and R of any step other than the first are obtained from the L and R of the preceding step - the two numbers L and R are interchanged and then a new R is obtained by adding L to it. (3) The Fibonacci value of N is on the N-th step from the top in the L number. The three observations suffice for the following program. Again it uses a TIMES-loop to execute (2) as often as required by the parameter N.
fibonacchi(N) = VAR L := 0 VAR R := 1 N TIMES DO L =:= R R := L + R RETURN LThe mutual assignment operator "=:=" swaps the values of the two variables. It might be implemented instead by
TEMP := L; L := R; R ;= TEMP
The program translates readily into Joy.
A call to the Joy program will be of the form
N fibonacciand hence the N will have to be available for the times loop. So the initialisation has to take place just below the parameter N, with
[0 1] dipNow the N will be consumed by the times combinator, and that will expose two numbers corresponding to the values of L and R, with the value of R topmost. The times combinator requires a quotation which corresponds to the body of the imperative TIMES loop. The quotation has to swap the two numbers on top of the stack, and then replace the top value by two sum of the two, but without consuming the second value. This replacement can be done by [+] unary. So the quotation required is
[ swap [+] unary ]Finally, the value to be returned is what corresponds to L in the imperative program, and that is the second value from the top of the stack. So the finalisation is simply
Putting the pieces together, this is the definition:
fibonacchi == [1 0] dip [swap [+] unary] times popIn the Joy library numlib.joy this is also just a one-liner:
fib == [1 0] dip [swap [+] unary] times pop;
gcd(I,J) == gcd(J, I rem J)where I rem J is the remainder of dividing I by J. For J = 0 the gcd is I. The steps for finding the gcd of 48 and 90 are:
step values 1 48 90 2 90 48 3 48 42 4 42 6 5 6 0Again there is a staircase with two values on each step, hereafter L and R. The first step consists of the two arguments. On every succeeding step L is what was the R of the preceding step, and the R is L rem R of the preceding step. This might be written in an imperative language with a WHILE-loop as
gcd(L, R) = VAR TEMP WHILE R > 0 DO TEMP := R R := L rem R L := TEMP RETURN LThe program might even be written without the TEMP variable but with mutual assignment like this:
gcd(L, R) = WHILE R > 0 DO L := L rem R L =:= R RETURN LWe now have to translate this into Joy. The call to the gcd program in Joy will look like this:
48 90 gcdJoy has a while combinator with takes two quotation parameters, a while-part and a do-part. The structure of the program will be
gcd == [ "while-part" ] [ "do-part" ] while "finalise"So the while-part will have to test whether the number on top of the stack is positive, and that is done with the quotation
[ 0 > ]The do-part will have to take the two parameters on top of the stack and simulate the effect of the assignment statements of one or the other of the imperative versions. (1) The top element on the stack will have to become the result of the rem operation. (2) The second element on the stack will have to be what was the first element. Since the rem operattion in (1) consumes the top element, but (2) needs it, that top element will have to be saved by a dup (similar to using the TEMP). After the dup the second and third element will have to available for the rem operation, and below the result of that will have to be the saved or duplicated first element. So before the rem the top three elements have to be shuffled by rollup, which moves the second and third element up by one and the first element down by two. Thus the do-part is
[ dup rollup rem ]The finalisation of course just pops off the 0 which is now on top of the stack.
So the entire definition is:
gcd == [ 0 >] [ dup rollup rem ] while popIn the Joy library numlib.joy this is also just a one-liner:
gcd == [0 >] [dup rollup rem] while pop;
One number N has another D as a divisor if and only if N divided by D leaves no remainder, or a remainder of 0. A number N has a proper divisor D if and only if N has a divisor D where D is other than 1 or N. A number N is prime if and only if it has no proper divisors. If a number is not prime, then it has a proper divisor D no greater than the square root of N, or equivalently the square of D is no greater than N.
So, given a number N,
the search for a proper divisor could start with a test
integer T = 2 and go up to that value of T for which
N is greater than the square of T.
During each step a test needs to be made
to determine whether the remainder of dividing N by T is positive.
After each step T is incremented.
The loop continues while
N is greater than the square of T AND T is not a divisor of N.
The loop stops when the preceding conjunction becomes false.
Since there are two conjuncts, there are two possible
reasons why the conjunction has become false.
If the second conjunct fails then N is not prime,
even if the first conjunct, N > T * T, is true.
On the other hand, if the first conjunct failed,
then T has already been incremented beyond the search range
and hence N is prime.
So N is prime if and only if the loop has terminated with N < T * T.
This algorithm can be expressed in an imperative language as:
prime(N) = VAR T := 2 WHILE (N > T * T) AND (N rem T > 0) DO T := T + 1; RETURN N < T * T
The program translates well into Joy.
Clearly it must have the structure
prime == "initialise" [ "termination-conjunction" ] [ "increment-test-value" ] while "finalise"It is important that the conjunction and the incrementation of the loop be done efficiently. This affects whether the initial test value 2 should be inserted above or below the given number on top of the stack. Individually the two conjuncts for the termination are best written as
dup * > rem 0 >which suggests that the test value is above the argument. Hence the initialisation should simply push the inital test value 2. Also, the test value should remain above the argument, and the incrementing is done simply by the succ operator. But the termination has to be a conjunction of the two conjuncts above, so they have to produce a truth value each which are then conjoined by the and operator. One way is to use the nullary combinator on the first conjunct to produce the first truth value without using up the two arguments. Then the two arguments can be used for the other conjunct with the dip combinator. So the entire termination conjunction is
[ [dup * >] nullary [rem 0 >] dip and ]The finalisation translates easily from the imperative program:
dup * <
So the entire program is as follows,
as it appears in the library numlib.joy:
prime == 2 [ [dup * >] nullary [rem 0 >] dip and ] [ succ ] while dup * < ;
Given a differentiable function F of one variable, one sometimes needs to find its roots, those values x for which F(x) = 0. One famous method, due to Newton, is the following: Start with a guess G for what that value x might be. Compute F(G), and if that is close enough to zero, take G to be the solution. Otherwise, use the current guess and the function F to find a better guess. Repeat this process until the latest guess is acceptable. This is essentially a WHILE loop.
So Newton's method is a general algorithm which takes
two parameters, an initial guess G and a function F.
In imperative style an outline is this:
newton(G,F) = WHILE "F(G) is not close enough to 0" DO "Use F and G to find a new G" RETURN GFor the WHILE-part it is necessary to specify a criterion for what counts as close enough to 0. Some small value can be built into the algorithm. It is also possible to make the value a further parameter. For simplicity this version will select the value 0.0001 hardwired into the program. Since the function F can return a positive or a negative value for the current guess, it is necessary to take the absolute value instead. So the refinement for the WHILE-part is this:
abs(F(G)) > 0.0001The DO-part is more complicated. To find a better guess, it is necessary use the old guess to determine whether the new guess should be larger or smaller, and by how much. In Newton's method the slope of the function F at the old guess is used. The new guess is then computed by subtracting from the old guess a value that depends on (1) the value of F at the old guess, and (2) the slope of F at the old guess. It is the slope that determines how close the new guess will be to the old guess. The slope of F at the old guess is of course the value of the derivative of F, which might be written as deriv(F). So the DO-part refines to
G := G - F(G)/deriv(F,G)Combining the parts the imperative version of Newton's method is the following.
newton(G,F) = WHILE abs(F(G)) > 0.0001 DO G := G - F(G)/deriv(F,G) RETURN GFor the derivative of the function F we again have to select a small number - ideally "infinitesimal" - say 0.001. Then F has to be applied to two values, x plus 0.001 and x. The difference between the two results is divided by 0.001 to get an approximation to the true slope of F at x. A definition might look like this:
deriv(F,x) = (F(x + 0.001) - F(x)) / 0.001The imperative newton program and the second order derivative function are now to be translated into Joy. It so turns out that the derivative of a function F is useful elsewhere. The most general form would be one which takes as a parameter a quotation, say [F], and which returns a quotation [D]. Both quotations would have to compute unary functions, and either quotation would be used by some combinator, quite possibly the i combinator. From the above formula we see that F is to be applied separately to two arguments, firstly to x + 0.001, and secondly to just x alone. Since x is needed twice, the argument has to be duplicated, and the small value 0.001 added to one of them. That is essentially
dup 0.001 +After the given quotation [F] has been applied to these two arguments, their difference has to be divided by 0.001. But the difference has to be computed in the right order, so a swap is needed before the subtraction. This fragment of the program thus is:
app2 swap - 0.001 /A call to the derivative program takes a parameter [F] as argument and it produces another quotation:
[F] deriv ==> [ dup 0.001 + [F] app2 swap - 0.001 / ]The required quotation is constructed from [F] by the following program:
deriv == [app2 swap - 0.001 /] cons [dup 0.001 +] swoncat;For example, the value of the derivative of the cube function for the argument 3.14 can be computed by
3.14 [ dup dup * * ] deriv i ==> 29.5882
We now return to the construction of the newton program.
The functional argument F will be a quotation,
and the guess argument will be a number.
Since the Joy program takes a quotation as an argument,
it is really a combinator,
and combinators generally expect the quotation to be
on top of the stack, and any further arguments below.
So a call to the Joy program newton will normally take
G [F] newtonWhen the program exits it must leave behind a number on top of the stack which could be fed into F to yield a small number very close to zero,
G [F] newton F ==> 0 (+/- 0.0001)The Joy program will have the structure
newton == "initialise" [ "while-part" ] [ "do-part" ] while "finalise"The do-part will require the quotation [F] and another quotation [D] for computing the derivative at the current guess. The quotation [D] is best constructed once and for all, and of course it needs to be constructed from [F]. This has to be done in the initialisation, so before the loop is entered and after it exits the stack looks like this:
G [F] [D]with [D] topmost. When the loop exits the [F] and [D] quotations are no longer needed, and the stack element below them is the value to be returned. This already settles the finalistion:
pop popIn the initialisation the [D] quotation has to be constructed from the [F] parameter using the deriv program. Now the initialisation can bewritten quite simply as
dup derivThe while-part has to determine whether the current guess, the third element from the top of the stack, when supplied as an argument to F, gives a value close enough to zero. The first element on the stack is actually the quotation [D], so that has to be popped off. Below that are [F] and the current guess, just in the right order for the i combinator. The result value might be positive or negative, so the absolute value is taken and compared with 0.0001. So the transliteration of the imperative program gives the following while-part for the Joy program:
[ pop i abs 0.0001 > ]The do-part is more complicated than that. This is partly because the computation of the new guess has to use the two quotations [F] and [G] but also retain them for possible further use. Another reason is that, as can be seen from the DO-part of the imperative version, the current guess is needed three times to compute the new guess. It so turns out that it only has to be duplicated once, but that has to be done below the [F] and the [D], by [[dup] dip] dip, or equivalently by
[ dupd ] dipFollowing that, the two quotations [F] and [D] have to be duplicated for future use by a special duplication operator dup2. So the stack at this point looks like this:
guess guess [F] [D] [F] [D]After these preliminaries the new guess has to be computed so that afterwards the stack looks like this:
newguess [F] [D]in readiness for possibly another sweep through the loop. Following the assignment statement of the imperative version, the quotations [F] and [D] can be applied to the uppermost copy of current guess to produce two values whose ratio is to be subtracted from the lower copy of the current guess. The result is the new guess:
cleave / -But the preceding fragment has to be executed below the two quotations [F] and [D] that were saved for possible later use. So the fragment has to be executed under the control of a double dip:
[ [cleave / -] dip] dipThis concludes the design of the do-part, which now is the following:
[ [dupd] dip dup2 [[cleave / -] dip] dip ]Finally, assembling the initialisation, the while-part, the do-part and the finalisation we have the entire newton program as it appears in the numlib.joy standard library.
newton == (* Usage: guess [F] newton *) dup deriv (* guess [F] [D] *) [ pop i abs 0.0001 > ] (* too big ? *) [ [dupd] dip (* guess guess [F] [D] *) dup2 (* guess guess [F] [D] [F] [D] *) [[cleave / - ] dip] dip ] (* newguess [F] [D] *) while pop pop;
Newton's algorithm finds arguments for which given function
has a value close to zero.
It is easy enough to use the algorithm to find arguments
for which the given function has a particular value other than zero.
For such usage the desired particular value has to be subtracted
from the value given by Newton's method.
Also, a quite arbitrary initial guess has to be supplied.
In this way Newton's method can be used to compute
the inverse of a given function.
In Joy the required program is
use-newton == [[-] cons] dip swoncat 1 swap newton;For example, the cube-root function is the inverse of the cube function, and we can define
cube-root == [dup dup * *] use-newton;